# Monthly Archives: November 2016

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-10

DIAGRAMATIC AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: TYPES OF DIAGRAMS: Three-dimensional Diagrams: Three-dimensional diagrams, also known as volume diagram, consist of cubes, cylinders, spheres, etc. In such diagrams three things, namely length, width and height have to be taken into account. Of all the figures, making of cubes is easy. Side of a cube is drawn in proportion… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-9

DIAGRAMATIC AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: TYPES OF DIAGRAMS: Two-dimensional Diagrams: In one-dimensional diagrams, only length 9 is taken into account. But in two-dimensional diagrams the area represent the data and so the length and breadth have both to be taken into account. Such diagrams are also called area diagrams or surface diagrams. The important types of… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-8

DIAGRAMATIC AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: One of the most convincing and appealing ways in which statistical results may be presented is through diagrams and graphs. Just one diagram is enough to represent a given data more effectively than thousand words. Moreover even a layman who has nothing to do with numbers can also understands diagrams. Evidence… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-7A

Types of class intervals: There are three methods of classifying the data according to class intervals – a) Exclusive method b) Inclusive method c) Open-end classes a) Exclusive method: When the class intervals are so fixed that the upper limit of one class is the lower limit of the next class; it is known as… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-7

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION  Data in a frequency array is ungrouped data. To group the data setting up of a 'frequency distribution' is required. A frequency distribution classifies the data into groups. It is simply a table in which the data are grouped into classes and the number of cases which fall in each class are recorded. … Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-6

Classification of Data In most research studies, voluminous raw data collected through a survey need to be reduced into homogeneous groups for any meaningful analysis. This necessitates classification of data, which in simple terms is the process of arranging data in groups or classes on the basis of some characteristics. The process of grouping into… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-5

Secondary data Secondary data are collected by investigators from sources other than primary respondents. Secondary data are collected from both, published and unpublished sources. It means secondary data are those data which have been already collected and analysed by some earlier agency for its own use; and later the same data are used by a… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-4

Categories of data Any statistical data can be classified under two categories depending upon the sources utilized. These  categories are, 1. Primary data 2.  Secondary data Primary data: Primary data is the one, which is collected by the investigator himself for the purpose of a specific inquiry or study. Such data is original in character… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-3

Functions and importance of statistics Statistical methods are used not only in the social, economic and political fields but in every field of science and knowledge. Statistical analysis has become more significant in global relations and in the age of fast developing information technology. According to Prof. Bowley, "The proper function of statistics is to… Read More »

## Statistics for SSC-CGL Tier-II (Paper-III) – Part-2

Introduction to Statistics Deﬁnitions The quantities measured in a study are called random variables, and a particular outcome is called an observation. Several observations are collectively known as data. The collection of all possible outcomes is called the population. In practice, we cannot usually observe the whole population. Instead we observe a sub-set of the… Read More »